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FINSSE-8 Turku, 8.-9.6.2017 Book of Abstracts
Table of Contents Keynote Lectures ................................................................................................................................. 3 Poster Presentations ............................................................................................................................. 5 Panels & Workshops ............................................................................................................................ 8 Paper Abstracts .................................................................................................................................. 10
Keynote Lectures Lynne Pearce (University of Lancaster, UK) “Walking out”: The Mobilities of Love This paper is extracted from a chapter written for my new book project - Life-Journey: Mobility, Memory, and the Ties that Bind - which brings together my recent work on automobility, cognition and affect (see Drivetime:Literary Excursions in Automotive Consciousness, 2016) with my earlier research on the discourse of romantic love (see Romance Writing, 2007). Drawing on theories from cultural geography, anthropology and philosophy, the book will use literary and autobiographical texts from the ‘long’ twentieth century to explore the role of various mobile practices (both macro and micro) in the production, as well as the performance, of intimate relationships ‘from the cradle to the grave’ (hence the book’s title: ‘life-journey’). The chapter on which this paper is based focuses on the mobilities associated with courtship (variously defined) and includes analysis of: the diary of a nineteenth-century stonemason, Arthur Peck; Rosamund Lehmann’s ‘inter-war’ novel, The Weather in the Streets (1936); and Ian Rankin’s crime fiction, The Naming of the Dead (2007). * Nike Pokorn (University of Ljubljana, Slovenia) The Role of Literary Translations in Immigrant Periodicals in the USA: Cultural Image Making and Identity Building through Translation The aim of the presentation is to highlight the transfer of information about national and cultural images through literary translation in the periodicals published by an émigré community in the US in the interwar period. Since every translation involves the dissemination of certain cultural images (Doorslaer 2012), I will argue that by means of the English translation of specific literary works published in the immigrant periodicals, immigrant diasporas in the US attempted to construct their own representation of their original culture, and communicate this image to mainstream US culture. I will focus on the role of literary translations published in 3 periodicals within the Slovene immigrant community in the USA in the interwar period, paying particular attention to the selections of source texts and the packaging of target texts (Kafh 2000). It will be argued first, that these translations published in the newspapers were key to the building of the imagined community of Slovene-Americans in the spirit of nineteenth-century nation building enterprises (Anderson 2006, Pogacar 2017); and second, that by means of the English translation of specific literary works, the immigrant diaspora of Slovene-Americans in the US attempted to construct their own representation of their original culture, and communicate this image to mainstream US culture. By contributing to the construction of national and cultural images of Slovene-Americans, translations thus became an active part of intra-cultural communications between a marginalized and dispersed immigrant linguistic community (Gentzler 2007) and the majority English-speaking society, both of which, together with other immigrant communities, helped constitute the US culture. References Anderson, Benedict. 2006. Imagined communities: Reflections on the origins and spread of nationalism. London, New York: Verso. Doorslaer, Luc van. 2012. National and cultural images. In: Yves Gambier, Luc van Doorslaer (eds.) Handbook of Translation Studies 3, 122-127. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. Gentzler, Edwin. 2007. Translation and identity in the Americas: new directions in translation theory. London: Routledge. 3
Kahf, Mohja. 2000. “Packaging "Huda": Sha’rawi’s Memoirs in the United States Reception Environment.” In Amireh, Amal, Majaj, Lisa Suhair (eds), Going global: the transnational reception of third world women writers: 148-172. London, New York: Garland. Pogacar, Timothy. 2017. Slovensko-ameriški časopis Prosveta 1916-2016: Stari izvori prihodnik oblik. Primerjalna knjževnost. In print. * Erzsébet Barát (University of Szeged, Hungary) Populist Discourses in the Hungarian Public Sphere: From Right to Left (and beyond)? Populism in political discourse is not only a characteristic feature of right-wing political parties. Recent left-wing political movements in Europe, most notably Podemos in Spain and Syriza in Greece are known to have been inspired by Ernesto Laclau’s (2005) work. He reclaims the importance of populism for a democratic politics against European austerity policies while opposing xenophobia and racism that have surfaced in the wake of the current refugee crisis in right-wing populist discourses. In my paper, I study this alternative left-wing populism by the Hungarian mock-party, Two-Tailed Dog Party (TTDP, ‘Kétfarkú Kutyapárt’). I contrast the progressive effects of irony that informs the non-exclusionary logic of identity formation in their discourse with the ideology of xenophobia in the right-wing populist discourse to repair the alleged vulnerability of heroic manhood of the State as articulated in the Hungarian Government’s billboard campaign in favour of the referendum on their migration policy on October 2, 2016. *
Poster Presentations Hanna Limatius (University of Tampere, Finland) “Every day I was reminded I wasn’t normal”: Constructing normal and abnormal bodies in plus-size fashion blogs My presentation focuses on the ways in which plus-size fashion bloggers describe their (and other people’s) bodies in their blog texts. Through a qualitative study of blog posts and comments, I aim to find out what kind of discursive and linguistic practices are used by these bloggers to construct “normal” and “abnormal” bodies. Plus-size fashion blogs are personal blogs that center on presenting fashion through “outfit of the day” posts, shopping advice and other fashion-related content, and that are authored by people (usually women) who self-identify as “plus-size”. Because being plus-size is highly stigmatized in Western culture (e.g. LeBesco & Braziel, 2001) and especially in the fashion media (e.g. Connell, 2013), many plus-size fashion bloggers place themselves outside the boundaries of “normal” when it comes to body shape and size. However, some of these bloggers have also found that through blogging, they have been able to construct new ways of being “normal” as a part of a community of fashion-forward, plus-size women. The term “plus-size” in itself evokes an image of a body that exists outside the norm, which is illustrated by its definition on Oxforddictionaries.com: “(of a woman or women's clothing) of a larger size than normal; outsize”. However, many bloggers have embraced this term, as they have done with the word “fat”, which has even more negative connotations in everyday talk (see e.g. Harju & Huovinen, 2015). By using these terms in neutral or positive contexts, the bloggers strip them of their power - when the terminology used to describe the body is normalized, the body itself becomes normalized as well. Still, the bloggers continue to face the struggle of not fitting into the scope of “normal” when it comes to the beauty standards set by the fashion industry, which leads to constant (re)negotiation of the normal/abnormal boundary. References Connell, C. (2013). “Fashionable resistance: Queer ‘fa(t)shion’ blogging as counterdiscourse.” Women’s Studies Quarterly, 41(1/2): 209-224. Harju, A., and Huovinen, A. (2015). “Fashionably voluptuous: Normative femininity and resistant performative tactics in fatshion blogs.” Journal of Marketing Management, 31(15-16): 1602-1625. LeBesco, K., & Braziel, J. E. (2001). Editors' introduction. In K. LeBesco, & J.E. Braziel (Eds.), Bodies out of bounds: Fatness and transgression (pp. 1-15). Berkeley: University of California Press. “Plus-Size.” In OxfordDictionaries.com. Accessed January 9, 2017 https://en.oxforddictionaries. com/definition/plus-size.
* Susanna Mäkinen (University of Turku, Finland) Advertising for fugitive slaves in American newspapers 1704-1865 The advertising columns in 18th and 19th century America gave slave owners opportunity to bring the public's attention to their fugitive slaves. Thousands and thousands of these notices, providing descriptions of the runaways and promising rewards for their capture, were published, starting with the first newspapers in colonial Massachusetts in the early 1700s and stretching all the way to the end of the Civil War in the newspapers of the Southern states. These advertisements offer detailed depictions of individual slaves, and have been the subject of much historical research. At the same 5
time, they are also an example of a specific text genre that spans over a time period of over a century and a half. This poster presents my doctoral dissertation research. Using advertisements collected from newspapers published in various colonies/states throughout the period in question, I study the stability as well as variation that can be found in this genre of advertisements. What is a prototypical runaway slave notice like, and how much does that model change in time or vary between different places? In the poster I will introduce my materials, as well as particular questions of interest in my research: e.g. How is the information in the advertisements structured? How much do the advertisers rely on fixed phrases that are repeated identically in most of the notices? What gets highlighted by means of large font size, italics, etc.? This more linguistic approach to the advertisements should bring new perspectives into the study of these fascinating texts. * Sara Norja (University of Turku, Finland) The Mirror of Alchemy: Alchemical texts as a source for corpora The source material for historical corpora – usually scholarly editions – are often not entirely accurate with regard to the original text. Documentary editing of historical material can provide a solution: the documentary method seeks to provide a faithful witness of the original material and to avoid any ahistorical, editorial insertions. The problem even with accurate documentary editions is that if they are in print, a corpus compiler will have to digitise the material; and with any manipulation of the original text, the risk of error grows greater. Thus, digital documentary editions are of the most use to historical corpus linguists (Lass 2004). A multitude of English medieval and early modern alchemical manuscript texts survive, written in both Latin and the vernacular. However, the uncharted material vastly outnumbers the texts edited so far (Grund 2013). In order for this branch of early scientific writing to be utilised, more alchemical texts need to be edited – preferably in a digital form compatible with corpus search tools. This poster will present one such editorial project. The Mirror of Alchemy (MoA) is a well-known alchemical work, previously attributed to Roger Bacon (c. 1214–1292). My doctoral research concerns the seven extant, as yet unexplored Englishlanguage manuscript versions of MoA (15th–17th centuries). A TEI XML based, open-access digital scholarly edition (DSE) of the versions of MoA will form part of my PhD dissertation: the DSE will be documentary, but combined with a reader-friendly best-text edition. My editorial principles build on the standards for the digital editing of Middle English texts proposed by Marttila (2014). The TEI XML encoding will make the DSE searchable and usable for quantitative research. The edition aims to be an accurate representation of the manuscript texts, and will encode aspects of the manuscript text including rubrication, marginal notes, and code-switching. References Grund, Peter J. 2013. ‘Editing alchemical texts in Middle English: The final frontier?’. In Vincent Gillespie and Anne Hudson (eds.), Probable Truth: Editing Medieval Texts from Britain in the Twenty-First Century. Turnhout, Belgium: Brepols, 427–42. Lass, Roger. 2004. ‘Ut custodiant litteras: Editions, corpora and witnesshood’. In Marina Dossena and Roger Lass (eds.), Methods and Data in English Historical Dialectology. Bern: Peter Lang, 21–48.
Marttila, Ville. 2014. ‘Creating Digital Editions for Corpus Linguistics: The case of Potage Dyvers, a family of six Middle English recipe collections’. PhD dissertation. University of Helsinki, Department of Modern Languages. [http://urn.fi/URN:ISBN:978-951-51-0060-3, accessed 17 February 2017]
* Mari-Liisa Varila (University of Turku, Finland) Paratextual evidence of late medieval and early modern compilatory practices As has been stressed in recent scholarship, the interaction between manuscript and print culture should be taken into account when exploring late fifteenth- and early sixteenth-century materials. This period falls somewhere between “the medieval” and “the early modern”, depending on which societal, technological, and ideological changes are used as the basis of periodisation. During this period, texts were copied from manuscript to print and print to manuscript. The book producers who prepared material to be printed were also embedded in manuscript culture. However, manuscript compilations from this period rarely contain explicit evidence on the rationale of text-selection or information on whether the scribe has adapted their source text in some way. Many early sixteenth-century printed books are also compilations and adaptations of medieval material. In the paratextual elements of these books – for example title-pages and prefaces – book producers occasionally shed light on the processes of text production. The paratext of a book offered the text producers a space for explaining the rationale behind their product to their potential customers. I examine English printed books from the period 1500–1550, focusing on the ways in which book producers describe their processes of gathering and compiling material in paratextual material. My data were collected from the Early English Books Online database by searching for verbs and adjectives that hint at compilatory activities (such as ‘compile’, ‘gather’, ‘diverse’, and ‘sundry’). I compare my findings to examples from early sixteenth-century manuscripts, suggesting that the metadiscursive commentary in early printed books can also shed light on manuscript compilations of this period. *
Panels & Workshops History of English Adverbial Connectives. Chair: Leena Kahlas-Tarkka (University of Helsinki) Matti Rissanen (University of Helsinki) Notes on the emergence, loss and changing frequency of adverbial connectives in the history of English Matti Kilpiö (University of Helsinki) Middle English subordinators meaning 'until' in the light of LAEME2 and eLALME Mikko Laitinen (University of Eastern Finland) Given that given that/the exists, what is its history and how is it used today? Turo Vartiainen (University of Helsinki) Also and as well as sentence-initial connectives Brita Wårvik (Åbo Akademi University) Some notes on the demise of ambiguous adverb/conjunctions Adverbial connectives are adverbs, prepositions, and subordinators which indicate relations of time, place, condition, concession, comparison, purpose, result, etc., linking concepts, ideas, and propositions to each other. During the history of the English language the repertoire of such items has changed greatly and a multitude of factors have been and are involved in the changes. The purpose of the workshop is to bring together students of different adverbial connectives from various periods of the history of English to discuss common issues in their historical and diachronic research, and we particularly welcome corpus-based studies that investigate the diachronic evolution of these items. * Teaching about English as a Lingua Franca (ELF): international insights on pedagogical practice. Chair: Dave Sayers Dave Sayers (Sheffield Hallam University, UK) Facilitating cultural exchange with international students in teaching ELF Rita Calabrese (University of Salerno, Italy) Rethinking language pedagogy from the ‘World Englishes Paradigm’ perspective Main themes: The proposed colloquium will be principally pedagogical, focusing on innovative methods in teaching university students about the development and use of ELF and world varieties of English. We will cover issues such as: encouraging students to progress beyond ‘core’ areas of theory like the Three Circles model; how students can gain first-hand experience of English use around the world; and how cutting-edge topics like ‘superdiversity’ can be taught at undergraduate level. With contributors from around the world, this colloquium promises further insights into a variety of institutional opportunities and constraints. *
English in the Nordic Countries from the Middle Ages to the Twentieth Century Matti Peikola (University of Turku) & Jukka Tyrkkö (Linnaeus University) The current status of English in Finland may be described as a second language or even a (third) unofficial national language (Leppänen et al. 2011: 168). While the rise of English to such prominence is essentially a post-World War II development, the language has been present here and in other Nordic countries for centuries, used by both native and non-native speakers and writers. During the early and late modern periods, there is evidence for the use of and contacts with English in a variety of public and private contexts, for example in commerce, industry, education, religion, diplomacy, sports, and military service. Contacts with texts coming from the cultural sphere of the British Isles have an even longer history in the North, as witnessed for example by Anglo-Saxon influence on early medieval Scandinavian liturgies and the exchange of devotional writings between Bridgettine houses in England and Sweden during the later Middle Ages. Earlier research into this theme has largely focused on the emergence of institutional forms of English language education and the academic study of English, either in individual Nordic countries or in the whole area (e.g. Olsen 1947, Bratt 1977, Sandved 1998, Enkvist 1999, Pahta 2008, Hiltunen 2012). Less institutionalised historical contexts of language acquisition and the various everyday spoken or written contact situations involving English have received less scholarly attention. To our knowledge, no anthology, corpus or database is available that would systematically represent the travelogues, journals, instructional manuals, religious pamphlets, collections of private and public correspondence, and other types of extant English-language texts originating in or commenting on the Nordic countries. The conveners are preparing a joint Nordic application to explore and record the changing roles and positions of the English language in the Nordic countries from the medieval to the modern era. In this session we are looking for national collaborators and welcome ideas from conference delegates about research topics within this broad theme. References Bratt, Ingar. 1977. Engelskundervisningens framväxt i Sverige: Tiden före 1850. Stockholm: Föreningen för Svensk undervisningshistoria. Enkvist, Nils Erik. 1999. English studies in Finland: Past, present, and future. In Proceedings from the 7th Nordic Conference on English Studies, ed. Sanna-Kaisa Tanskanen and Brita Wårvik. Turku: University of Turku, 13–31. Hiltunen Risto. 2012. History of English historical linguistics: Northern Europe. In English Historical Linguistics: An International Handbook, ed. Alexander Bergs and Laurel Brinton. Berlin: Mouton De Gruyter, 1354–1375. Leppänen, Sirpa, Anne Pitkänen-Huhta, Tarja Nikula, Samu Kytölä, Timo Törmäkangas, Kari Nissinen, Leila Kääntä, Tiina Räisänen, Mikko Laitinen, Päivi Pahta, Heidi Koskela, Salla Lähdesmäki and Henna Jousmäki. 2011. National Survey on the English Language in Finland: Uses, Meanings and Attitudes. Helsinki: Varieng. Olsen, Lektor. 1947. English language studies in Denmark. English Language Teaching 1: 157–163. Pahta, Päivi. 2008. The history of English studies in Finland. In European English Studies: Contributions towards the History of a Discipline, vol. II, ed. Renate Haas and Balz Engler. Leicester: The English Association, University of Leicester, 15–41. Sandved, Arthur O. 1998. Fra ’kremmersprog’ til verdensspråk: Engelsk som universitetsfag i Norge 1850– 1943. Oslo: Universitetet i Oslo.
Paper Abstracts Amin Beiranvand (University of Turku, Finland) Torture and the Novel: A Post-Colonial Criticism of J. M Coetzee’s Waiting for the Barbarians One of the bitter realities of the contemporary era is torture. Especially in the hands of governments torture has been a tool used to secure their rule and to elicit information from victims. This misdemeanour was also used during the colonization era. Colonizers had a negative attitude towards the dominated people. In other words, they were looked down upon, but were also regarded as a threat to the imperial rule. An author who deals with the concept of torture by the representatives of the empire is Nobel Laureate J. M. Coetzee. In his third novel, Waiting for the Bargains he touches upon the issue of torture. The novel narrates the story of a magistrate who runs the administrative affairs of a remote outpost in the frontier. A rumoured attack of the barbarians brings Colonel Joll and his men form the metropolis to remove the threat. Drawing on the idea of “otherness” of dominated people in the novel, I argue that the empire needs an enemy to justify its presence. I also argue that to torture the so-called enemy, the colonized first need to be depicted differently, that is to say, as “other” or subhuman. Once humanity is denied from them they are subjected to persecution. We see that in the novel after the nomads are described as the enemy, a threat to the empire and animals, they are publically tortured. All this serves as a means to warrant the military presence of the empire and repression of the native people. * John Braidwood (University of Oulu, Finland) The Cultural Laundromat: Rory Gallagher’s complex bricolage Irish blues rocker Rory Gallagher created a hybrid Anglo-Irish cultural rite of passage for many thousands of young Irish and Brits from the late ‘60s onwards, triggering a hitherto unacknowledged sense of cultural, linguistic and musical solidarity between those who bought his albums and flocked to his concerts on both sides of the Irish Sea. He represented a collective liminality which was in complete contrast to the polarizing effects of the Troubles in Ulster then dominating relations between Ireland, Northern Ireland and Britain. According to Lévi-Strauss, “music supplements language, which is always in danger of becoming incomprehensible if it is spoken over too great a distance or if the speaker has poor articulation”. (Lévi-Strauss 1973, 326) Unconsciously appropriating this theory Gallagher used music itself as his Anglo-Irish language of communication: it was less the lyrics he sang than the voice of his American blues dominated guitar playing which provided his own bridge of articulation across the Irish Sea. Gallagher was performing an openly subversive musical act. In The Savage Mind, 1962, Lévi-Strauss proposes the term bricolage (Lévi-Strauss 1966, 16), which seems befitting of Gallagher’s artistry: a selective borrowing of source material. It’s a long way from the Mississippi to the Lee. Rory Gallagher was also continuing a tradition well established in Irish vernacular culture. He was a revenant; unearthing, rekindling and re-energizing the spirit of the blind Irish harper Turlough O’Carolan, the last Irish harper. Gallagher was, too, passing on the tales, the myths, all accompanied by virtuoso music clearly based on the American blues aesthetic. The afterlife of both Gallagher and Turlough continues. This paper will also include Brian Keenan’s novelistic account of Turlough, Keenan’s incarcerated blindness and his visitations from Turlough during his captivity and is my tribute to Rory Gallagher. *
Rita Calabrese (University of Salerno, Italy) Rethinking language pedagogy from the ‘World Englishes Paradigm’ perspective When trying to make generalizations about a certain language variety in pedagogical contexts, we must consider the concept of ‘standard’ as a term used for that variety of language considered the norm. More recently, an approach to the study of new varieties of English (or World Englishes) has emerged, which primarily supports diversity. The ‘World Englishes’ Paradigm recently proposed by Phillipson (2007) is strongly multilingual and takes into account local (regional and/or national) linguistic norms. The present paper draws on research being carried out with the aim to identify language norms or shared language behaviors in Indian English, during its stabilization and standardization. The research considered written and spoken data across different genres over a period of one hundred years. The sample data derive from a Diachronic Corpus of Indian English (DiCIE) specifically compiled for a diachronic investigation concerning the years 1909-2010. The presentation will focus on a teaching proposal along with selected materials specifically designed for first year university students, reflecting systematically on its pedagogical effectiveness in relation to the World Englishes model. * Laura Ekberg (University of Turku, Finland) Caribbean novels in translation – the translator’s perspective In Anglophone Caribbean literature, various forms of code-switching are frequently used to portray the local culture as well as to represent the inherently multilingual nature of the language community. Switches can be made to Creole languages as well as different varieties of various European languages, such as English or French. Due to many of these forms of language being both geographically and culturally bound, translating a text containing code-switching can be challenging, especially when the source and target cultures are far removed from one another. In this paper, I will be looking at the process of translating Anglophone Caribbean novels into Finnish from the point of view of the translator. I will analyse the strategies chosen by the Finnish translators using textual analysis as well as interviews with the translators. My main interest is in analysing the manner in which the translations portray foreign cultures to Finnish readers – to what extent do the translations retain what I call cultural integrity, which involves the ethics of respecting the cultural elements present in the source text? In Caribbean literature, the source text itself can be considered a form of intercultural translation, and thus both the source text and its translation can be analysed using similar methods. This paper is a part of my PhD dissertation, which deals with the use of code-switching and non-standard language in Anglophone Caribbean novels and their Finnish translations. * Lena Englund (Åbo Akademi University, Finland) A Life of Writing: Exploring the Autobiographical in the Works of Doris Lessing This paper examines the extraordinary literary career of Doris Lessing from a perspective of the autobiographical. Having been born in 1919, her long and productive writing career spans several decades, covering turbulent and transformational periods in the 20th century. Lessing’s works give evidence of an unusually brilliant mind and exceptional talent, culminating in 2007 with the Nobel Prize in Literature. Having successfully experimented with a number of different literary forms such 11
as the novel, short story and the essay, Lessing’s greatest achievements are undoubtedly tied to the autobiographical, which can be found in much of her writing from 1950 to 2008. She broke new ground for feminist writing, for white African writing, for science fiction, but in this paper I argue that her most important contribution to literature is the autobiographical element. She made the personal public and displayed her own life in writing to a degree seen among few authors. Lessing’s actual autobiographies published in 1994 and 1998 coincided with the ‘memoir boom’ (Cf. Gilmore, 2001; Douglas, 2010), which was a time when life writing was gaining popularity and status. Today, life narratives of various kinds are being consumed as never before, and the popular interest in personal stories is significant. Lessing was a predecessor also in this regard, making use of memories and personal experiences in her fiction, for example the Martha Quest series. Her essay collections and travel writing (cf. African Laughter, Going Home) add another dimension to the insightful self-exploration that defines so much of her writing. As Finland celebrates its 100 years as an independent nation, a tribute to Doris Lessing, who would have turned 98 this year, and her amazing literary achievements seems most appropriate. Keywords: Doris Lessing, life writing
* Jason Finch (Åbo Akademi University, Finland) Beyond The Arbor: Urban Identity, Documentary and Drama in Bradford, England The city of Bradford, England, is home to over 500,000 people and is important within an urban area of over a million. So is the Finnish capital, Helsinki. But Bradford is a secondary city even within its immediate region of West Yorkshire. And in the twenty-first century it has struggled to escape a reputation as a ‘broken city’, ‘left behind’ amid socio-economic change. Recent media portrayals of Bradford have often concentrated on inter-ethnic clashes and segregated housing among deprived white British and British Asian residents. This paper examines Bradford through the lens of literary urban studies via the eclectic and wideranging methodology of Deep Locational Criticism. The effort is, as far as possible, to tell the full experienced truth of the city using literary and other cultural materials. Such an effort would surely be made for a national capital of similar size to Bradford, as it has for Helsinki. Yet studies of ‘literature and the city’ neglect cities like Bradford. Bradford literature since 1945 contains two main strands. In the 1950s and 1960s the novelists John Braine, David Storey and Keith Waterhouse described ambitious male protagonists from lowerclass backgrounds struggling to leave or triumph over mentally restricted West Yorkshire settings. These had close parallels with Bradford but the writers changed toponyms to distance their textual worlds from this particular non-fictional city. On stage and screen since 1980, when Andrea Dunbar’s The Arbor premiered at the Royal Court Theatre in London, Bradford has symbolized England’s bleakest and most desperate post-industrial extremes. Plays by Dunbar and Robin Soans and films by Clio Barnard pursue an extreme of documentary authenticity. Both strands plot trajectories of escape. A fuller account of Bradford as imaginative place would sketch the city’s imaginative and cultural topography: British Asian writing of the city; aspects of diversity connecting it to the outside world including its university and radical political heritage; its relationship to the surrounding Pennine landscape containing the site of literary tourism at Haworth, home to the Brontë sisters. A fuller treatment of Bradford would germinate mutual understanding and cultural tolerance within a divided England. 12
Joseph Flanagan (University of Helsinki, Finland) Transcribing 21st Century British English Vowels: A Critical Appraisal In his defense of the importance of phonetic transcription, John Wells notes that "a passive acquaintance with phonetic transcription enables [a learner] to extract precise and explicit information on pronunciation from a dictionary, bilingual or monolingual", adding that without this information, "a learner risks being misled either by an inadequately trained ear or by the dazzling effect of ordinary spelling". Implicit within Wells' argument is the assumption that the transcriptions found in pronunciation dictionaries and textbooks accurately reflect the current pronunciation of a word. However, this assumption is not warranted for learners of British English. Many Finnish dictionaries use the simplified system devised by Daniel Jones in the mid- twentieth century. Even the "updated" system devised by A.C. Gimson and later adapted by most British publishers dates to the early sixties. Learners thus rely upon a set of symbols designed to represent English as it was spoken more than a half century ago for information on how it is spoken today. Instead of being misled by orthography, they risk being misled by phonemic symbols, and may wind up sounding more like a mid-twentieth century don than a contemporary speaker of British English. In this paper, I will examine how we might update dictionary transcriptions for the 21st century. I will first review the general principles of phonemic transcription, showing how the inherent tension among these principles leads to differing transcription practices. I will then briefly survey some of the major transcription systems used for British English, including that recently proposed by Geoff Lindsey. Finally, I will evaluate these transcription symbols in light of my phonetic analysis of a sample from the Dynamic Variability in Speech (DyViS) Database, a speech corpus of 100 male speakers of Standard Southern British English. * Aino Haataja (University of Turku, Finland) Maria Edgeworth's Ormond (1817): A Man of Feeling Learning by Experience Edgeworth's Ormond portrays the growth and conscious project of improvement of a young passionate man, Harry, into a self-controlled gentleman. Besides Harry's mind, also the land he gains from one of his guardians, is improved, forming an allegorical relationship between the two. Harry proceeds closer and closer to human society and the city as he grows. He learns much by experience, and yet he shares many characteristics with the sentimental hero, or the Man of Feeling – a character type that has traditionally been seen as “inexperienced”. A strong opposition between the domestic and “the world” emerges. Reared in isolation, Harry at first opposes worldly corruption but later, in Paris, amuses “himself in the world”. It is only through a very fantastic turn of plot that he finds himself back home in Ireland. My conclusion is, therefore, that according to the text, chance is the only element that protects one from “the world”. The novel has so far yielded mostly political interpretations and explorations of topics such as fashion and the gentlemanly ideal. This paper proposes an "educational reading" instead, focusing on the spatial advancement of Harry's education and on the two very different growth environments Harry finds himself in. I believe my reading is a useful extension to the studies on the functions of realism and romance in Edgeworth’s fiction and can further the discussion on “inexperienced” or unworldly heroes and heroines. Links to the broad thematic of the Reformation can be found in, for example, Harry’s quite Romantic ideal of self-actualization that has roots in Luther’s appreciation of work suited to the individual’s talents (Jeffers 2005: 39), as well as in the respect of diligence reflected in the concepts of improvement and resoluteness.
References Jeffers, T. L. 2005. Apprenticeships: The Bildungsroman from Goethe to Santayana. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
* Ira Hansen (University of Turku, Finland) New York and the traumatized mind: Conceptualizing spatial interaction in Paul Auster’s The New York Trilogy The contemporary American author Paul Auster’s psychologically orientated fiction drills deep into the subconscious workings of his often traumatized main characters. This subconscious manifests particularly in the characters’ spatial interaction: their internal turmoil is reflected in the depiction of the external space and in the way they interact with that space. In my paper, I take a transcendental phenomenological excursion into conceptualizing this interaction, and discuss how it conditions and alters not only the characters’ conscious perception but also the subconscious. From the perspective of embodied spatial experiences, I contribute to the debate on conceptualizing space within literary scholarship. New York features in most of Auster’s fiction and is also the focal point of one of his earliest and most famous works, The New York Trilogy (1987). In the vein of de Certeau, the trilogy presents the city as simultaneously tangible, familiar and stable as well as abstract, unknown and fluid. The city is, on the one hand, a functional object of the characters’ everyday lives and, on the other hand, a labyrinth of mixed emotions, the confines of which recreate and restructure the processes of the subconscious. As the traumas of the main characters deepen, so changes the city from concrete into a subconscious-like, non-linguistic space. The physical and the mental intertwine as the characters escape deeper into the maze of the city and the recesses of their minds. In this process, the spatial experience and the relationship between the internal and the external are constantly renegotiated and reaffirmed. Auster’s texts show how space is reconstructed not only through perception but also through the subconscious. In turn, the spaces perceived, experienced and lived continuously recreate the characters. * Anthony Johnson (Åbo Akademi University, Finland) Writing ‘Irishly': Dermot O'Byrne, Arnold Bax, Pádraig Pearse, and the Music of Identity Hailed as a ‘masterpiece’ by W.B. Yeats but banned by the British censors, Dermot O’Byrne’s lament for the Easter uprising – ‘A Dublin Ballad: 1916’ – is (like so much of the poetry of Yeats himself) a work of masks and ventriloquism. For although there is no doubt as to its sincerity – and its creator had certainly attracted the sympathetic attentions of his acquaintance Pádraig Pearse (who subsequently became something of a hero to him) – ‘Dermot O’Byrne’ was actually an acquired identity into which its owner crawled on his frequent visits to Ireland: self-confessedly sloughing off his Englishness on arrival in Dunleary or Rosslare like ‘a snake its skin in the spring’. In propria persona O’Byrne was, in fact, Arnold Bax, whose achievements as a composer were one day to gain him the knighted status of Master of the King’s Music in England. With respect to such an iconically ‘English’ composer, it therefore seems palpably ironic that so much of his musical (as well as poetic) identity was forged upon the anvil of the Celtic Twilight – reading Yeats, mingling in the circles of AE, and living for some years in Glencomcille (Co Donegal) where he imbibed a 14
good deal of traditional lore and music alongside a working knowledge of Gaelic. Not less remarkable is the fact that the experience was one which he felt had led him to ‘write Irishly’, in his music: ‘using figures and melodies of a definitely Celtic curve’ to create provocative works beyond the Celtic Twilight, such as In Memoriam Pádraig Pearse (1916) – which was not performed in England or Ireland until after Bax’s death. Cognizant of recent writings on O’Byrne and Bax from Colin Scott-Sutherland (ed. 2001) and Gerald Dawe (2012) onwards – along with those of musicologists such as Fabian Gregor Huss (2014) – the present paper uses the tools of Cultural Imagology to examine the imagined communities and identities presupposed by Bax’s poetic and orchestral tributes to Pearse and opens up the cultural and aesthetic faultlines which are thereby exposed. As a tribute to Finland's centennial celebrations, my study then closes by considering a number of the explicit parallels between the contribution of Bax and Sibelius (much admired by the former) to the developing national imaginaries of the States with which they became associated. * Matti Kilpiö (University of Helsinki) Middle English subordinators meaning ’until’ in the light of LAEME2 and eLALME The present study, an essay in historical dialectology, examines the variation of the different ME subordinators meaning ‘until’ by using the Linguistic Atlas of Early Middle English and A Linguistic Atlas of Late Mediaeval English as the basic data. In addition to examining the diatopic and diachronic variation of the items, attention is also paid e.g. to the following questions: * How to explain the rise of non-directional subordinators, such as all what, on, while and that in the ME period? * What kind of factors contribute to the loss or survival of individual subordinators? * What is the role of intralinguistic and extralinguistic factors? The present study is intended to provide a kind of corrective to more general surveys which tend to exclude more rare and/or dialectal items. * Joel Kuortti (University of Turku, Turku) Nothing Is out of Ordinary: Negotiating Normality in Rushdie’s Two Years Eight Months and Twenty-Eight Nights. Salman Rushdie’s most recent novel Two Years Eight Months and Twenty-Eight Nights (2015) presents an encounter of two worlds: the upper, jinn world Peristan/Fairyland, and the lower, human world Earth. It is an exploration of the dualism between the ordinary and the extraordinary, the normal and the abnormal, the everyday and the unusual. When the normal course of life is disrupted, everything becomes detached, literally and metaphorically. In my paper I examine how the novel weaves a complex narrative from historical and fictional sources, through which it contrasts different perceptions of reality. The ordinary, mundane reality is juxtaposed with the surreality of the jinn, and the rational, secular with the absolutist religious reality. The text of the novel does not offer a simple reading of these juxtapositions, as it is unfolded in parallel, overlapping stories. I analyse the structure of the novel and evaluate the progression of the narrative especially in relation to the stance it takes on reality. The obvious explanations would be 15
magical-realist and/or liberal enlightenment, but a detailed analysis suggests more nuanced positions between “Nothing Is out of Ordinary” (116), “reality g[iving] up being rational, or at least dialectic” (91) and “the new normal” (83). * Mikko Laitinen (University of Eastern Finland, Finland) Using big data to test the weak tie model of linguistic change This presentation focuses on the weak social tie model of linguistic change. Elaborated by Milroy & Milroy (1985), it predicts that mobility and concomitant loose-knit social networks tend to promote diffusion of innovations, and individuals with loose social ties are more likely to be early adopters of change than the rest of the population. The previous sociolinguistic studies that have explored social networks as determinants of change typically rely on small datasets. A typical method of collecting data is ethnographic observation or philological studies in which the purpose is to elicit or collect data of social ties for each respondent in extremely small networks (Milroy & Milroy 1985; Fitzmaurice 2000; Bergs 2005; Sairio 2009). I present the first efforts of operationalizing weak ties using big Twitter micro-blog data. The social tie model is revisited and tested using a database of nearly 8 million messages from 199,842 geotagged Twitter accounts from five Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden). The data originate from a continuously updated real-time monitor corpus of tweets and their metadata that are being collected in an interdisciplinary project that combines the expertise of sociolinguists and digital experts to broaden the scope of non-native English evidence in the Nordic countries (Laitinen et al. submitted). The study uses two automatically-generated metadata parameters embedded in the tweet stream. The dependent variable is language choice in the tweet stream and in particular the proportional share of messages in English per account. The independent factors are the two parameters of the number of Twitter followers each individual has and the number of their Twitter friends. The null hypothesis is that there is no difference in the number of weak ties between those who tweet in the dominant languages of the region and multilingual tweeters who use English in their messages. H1 states that multilingual tweeters have more weak ties in the form of friends and followers. The results show that the null hypothesis can be rejected. They indicate that multilingual tweeters have more weak social ties than the rest of the population and their role as agents and early adopters of ongoing linguistic change should be studied in more detail. The presentation also reviews some future prospects of using big and rich social media data in sociolinguistic research. References Bergs, Alexander. 2005. Social Networks and Historical Sociolinguistics: Studies in Morphosyntactic Variation in the Paston Letters 1421–1503. Berlin, New York: Mouton de Gruyter. Fitzmaurice, Susan. 2000. The Spectator, the politics of social networks, and language standardization in eighteenth century England. In Laura Wright (ed.), The Development of Standard English 1300–1800: Theories, Descriptions, Conflicts, 195–218. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Laitinen, Mikko, Jonas Lundberg, Magnus Levin & Alexander Lakaw. Submitted. Creating the Nordic Tweet Stream: a real-time monitor corpus of rich and big data. Journal of Universal Computer Science. Sairio, Anni. 2009. Language and Letters of the Bluestocking Network: Sociolinguistic Issues in EighteenthCentury Epistolary English. Helsinki: Société Neophilologique.
Signe-Anita Lindgrén (Åbo Akademi University, Aalto University, Finland) and Tuija Virtanen-Ulfhielm (Åbo Akademi University, Finland) Advances in Applied Linguistics - Wrapping up During the past five years, English Language and Literature at Åbo Akademi has hosted a project entitled “Advances in Applied Linguistics (AAL) “, funded by the H. W. Donner Foundation (8/2012-7/2017). This presentation highlights selected research questions and findings from the research-related activities of the project. We also present data collected in the period which will be available for further research within the academic community. We present: The BATMAT Corpus, a new addition to advanced EFL learner corpora consisting of BA and MA theses written by Finland-Swedish speakers studying English (approx. 2.5 million words) including background information on the writers. The corpus is listed in Learner corpora around the world1, Centre for English Corpus Linguistics, CECL, Belgium. http://www.abo.fi/fakultet/Content/ Document/document/31388 The LONGLEX project, which explores L1-Swedish speaking and matched L1-Finnish speaking 8th graders’ EFL vocabulary knowledge with a follow-up in grade 9 (n= 108), focusing on specialized vocabulary taught not until grade 9 ,and L1 and EFL reading fluency. The data also contain information on various background variables, e.g., the use of English outside class, and additional information from teachers. http://www.abo.fi/fakultet/en/Content/Document/ document/31399 Talkabulary is a corpus of spoken data (audio, video) from L1 Finland-Swedish university students at different proficiency levels comprising group presentations, group discussions, and individual oral presentations. In addition to these main projects, research on dyslexia in L1 and EFL has been conducted, including activities and student exchange within NorDys, Nordic Network for Reading and Writing Disabilities in Higher Education. http://www.abo.fi/fakultet/Content/Document/document/31389 Within all AAL activities, a strong focus has been on teaching-based research for advancing research-informed teaching. References 1 https://www.uclouvain.be/en-cecl-lcworld.html
* Eva Norrman, (Åbo Akademi University, Finland) The Language of Mary Stenbäck’s (1881-1926) Travel Diaries: A Case Study Mary Stenbäck (née Longman, 1881-1926) was the daughter of publisher Charles J. Longman and Harriet Evans. She was born in London, educated at Girton College in Cambridge, and became a Finnish subject by marriage to Carl Wolter Stenbäck (1884-1956) in Helsinki in 1919 (PietiläCastrén 2007). Four of Mary Stenbäck’s unpublished travel diaries reside in Wolter Stenbäck’s collection at the Åbo Akademi University Library. The diaries were written in 1894, 1900, 1901 and 1903, and narrate her trips to Switzerland, Italy, Malta and Greece. These manuscript diaries have now been transcribed and amount to approximately 54, 000 words. I have chosen not to emend anomalies that I initially interpreted as errors, or as features of the author’s idiolect. According to 17
Mugglestone (2006), the difference between public and private usage has often prompted emendation in modern editions of nineteenth-century texts, because features of these texts are seen as peculiarities or irregularities of spelling. Some of these patterns can, however, be seen as entirely characteristic of the realities of nineteenth-century spelling practice. This paper will be based on a small-scale exploratory case study of the language in Mary Stenbäck’s travel diaries: to what extent do the diaries express characteristics typical of late nineteenth and early twentieth century English? Late Modern English has been given less scholarly attention than other periods in the history of English, partly because the developments are recent, but also because of the deceptive similarity to Present-day English (Kytö et al., 2006). Genre diversity in terms of linguistic make-up increased during the nineteenth century (Ibid.) and therefore the paper will also address factors such as the differences between public, and private informal use of written English. References Kytö, Merja, Mats Rydén, and Erik Smitterberg (eds.), Nineteenth-Century English: Stability and Change, Cambridge etc., Cambridge University Press, 2006. Mugglestone, Lynda, ‘English in the Nineteenth Century’, in Mugglestone (ed.) Oxford History of English, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2006, pp. 274-304. Pietilä-Castrén, Leena, The Graeco-Roman Terracotta Figurines of Finland and their Collectors, Helsinki, Papers and Monographies of the Finnish Institute at Athens, Vol. 11, 2007. Stenbäck, Mary. Travel Diaries (1894, 1900, 1901 and 1903). Åbo Akademi University Library, The Manuscript Collection, Stenbäck, Wolter, vol. 15.
* Jopi Nyman (University of Eastern Finland, Finland) Migration and Mobility: Borderscapes Contemporary Refugee Narratives The massive migrations of the 20th century continue in the 21st at an unforeseen speed as testified in postcolonial writing by writers such as Caryl Phillips and Abdulrazak Gurnah where migration, asylum, and cultural clashes are explored. Migration, while leading to new identifications and locations of identity, also involves narratives of displacement and dislocation, and memories of loss, famine, and death, as testified, for instance, in the histories of the Armenian and Irish diasporas. Such shared experiences remain long-standing cultural traumas in diasporic culture. Similar narratives are notably present in contemporary globalization. Rather than consisting of an unlimited movement of peoples, things, and ideas across national and cultural borders, ecological disasters as well as political and military violence push human beings towards the borders separating Europe from Africa, Australia from Asia, and the United States from Latin America. Border, however, do not only separate but also bring together various actors, and creates new modes and spaces of interaction, new borderscapes where identities, belonging, and citizenship are negotiated and reconstructed (see Newman 27–57; Brambilla 1–14). Populated with migrants and travellers of various kinds, all with their individual histories, these spaces generate new stories that tell of both migrants’ past struggles and their new affiliations. This paper will examine the representation of displacement and forced migration as features of the borderscape in the short fiction of Segun Afolabi and the recent collection Refugee Tales (2016) based on migrants’ stories as told to contemporary writers such as Ali Smith and Abdulrazak Gurnah. *
Outi Paloposki (University of Turku, Finland) Criss-crossing borders: immigrants and translated literature The most often researched cases in Translation Studies are those translations that cross national and linguistic borders, but there are several other kinds of translated texts that have escaped closer study. Multilingual communities and texts by minorities, immigrants among them, are far less studied yet they provide information on the cultural and literary relations within nations, not only between them. In a large, multi-author history project of charting translated literature into Finnish (results published in 2007), the focus was on translations in Finland and into Finnish. This focus hides from the eye the immigrant community translations into Finnish in other areas of the globe (the biggest communities are found in the US and in Canada). As one of the editors of the history project I am acutely aware of the many shortcomings of the history. Thus, my presentation aims at moving forwards towards the study of translated immigrant literature in the US. The corpus for the first stage of the study consists of the around 200 books (according to the Fennica database) published in the US and translated from English into Finnish. Later stages involve a study of the Finnish newspapers in the US and Finnish literature translated into English in the US. The study combines methods from sociology of literature and Translation Studies and aims at studying the initial catalysts for translating, the network of translators, and the links within the Finnish immigrant community of translation and with other (US and Finnish) agents. The research will also shed light on the reading patterns of the immigrant community. The study will complement the research done on writing practices of Finns in the US and will also facilitate forming a picture of the literary and cultural ties between immigrants and the literature of their new homeland. * Bo Pettersson (University of Helsinki, Finland) The Continuing Story: Rewriting the History of Naturalism in American Literature The standard view of literary naturalism is that of prose fiction depicting the seedy side of life and human action in the decades preceding and following 1900, with Frank Norris, Theodore Dreiser, Stephen Crane and Jack London as the most prominent authors. Still, in Naturalism in American Fiction (1984) John J. Conder draws the line further by detecting naturalist features in some works of John Dos Passos, John Steinbeck and William Faulkner. At times other authors have been included, but for the most part naturalism seems mainly a period term for the stark realist fiction pinpointing hereditary or environmental features before the Second World War. In this paper I clam that such a view blinds us for the fact that much post-war American literature has included evident naturalist features. Before and after the war James T. Farrell and Nelson Algren portrayed the sordid working-class settings in ways that inspired both the fiction and poetry of Beats like Allen Ginsberg, Jack Kerouac and Charles Bukowski. Realist, modern or postmodern science fiction authors, such as T. S. Eliot, Ernest Hemingway or Kurt Vonnegut, also make use of naturalist traits. What is more, Truman Capote and Norman Mailer are often termed nonfiction novelists and Stephen King and Gillian Flynn thriller authors, but in fact their dramatizing of violence often has naturalist qualities. If we do not recognize the serious social commentary entailed in the naturalist features of such authors, we miss some of the most salient aspects of their works. 19
In fact, this point can be broadened. The danger of periodization is that particular features are not seen as abiding literary elements beyond the epochs and genres established in received literary history. Bionote: Bo Pettersson is Professor of the Literature of the United States and former Head of English at Department of Modern Languages, University of Helsinki. He has published widely on Anglo-American and other literature in relation to literary, narrative and metaphor theory, including How Literary Worlds Are Shaped. A Comparative Poetics of Literary Imagination (Berlin and Boston: De Gruyter, 2016).
* Malin Podlevskikh-Carlström (University of Gothenburg, Sweden) Against Tradition? Jamie Gambrell’s Translation of Tolstaya’s Kys’ (The Slynx) Kys’ is an anti-utopian novel set approximately 200 years after a catastrophic nuclear event known as the Blast. In this future Russia old books are forbidden and the only literature available is produced by the current dictator, who in fact steals the words of writers like Pushkin, Mandelstam, and Pasternak. In an article published in a Russian journal, Dutch scholar and publisher’s advisor Otto Boele discusses his decision not to recommend Tolstaya’s Kys’ for translation. He explains that he expected the cited poetry and intertextual allusions to have an excluding effect on foreign readers (2006). John Banville’s review of Jamey Gambrell’s translation into American English seems to confirm this prediction. He writes: “Reading The Slynx is rather like finding oneself attending a theatrical performance in a foreign city where one knows the language but simply cannot get the jokes or the slang or the references” (2003). In this presentation I discuss the novel’s translation into English (by Gambrell) and Swedish (by Skott and Nikolajeva). This comparison will expose by way of quantitative analysis that the translators make use of completely opposite strategies: Gambrell consequently translates the references to Russian literature, while Skott and Nikolajeva frequently replace these elements with an equivalent in the target culture. Gambrell’s translation can therefore be seen as standing ‘against tradition’ in a culture that has been accused for being “imperialistic abroad and xenophobic at home” (Venuti 1995). I present quantifiable results from coding the source text and the two target text, using Fateeva’s (2006) classification of intertextuality, and Denisova’s (2002) four possible strategies for translating intertextual elements. This study is an excerpt of my doctoral thesis. At a later stage I intend to triangulate my current results with a contrastive analysis of the novel’s reception in Russia, Anglo-America and Sweden. * Johanna Rastas (University of Turku, Finland) In search of identity: terms related to American nationalism during the 1760s and 1770s The United States declared its independence in 1776 and at that time the newly born state was not like any other known nation. The inhabitants had to define themselves as other than subjects of the British Crown. This transformation process of national identity from British colonists into American citizens was slow and it had already begun prior to independence. There are several recent studies which are focused on this process of identity change (e.g. Marienstras 2000, Ziegler 2006, Florian 2013). An interesting question is to what extent ordinary people had developed a sense of American identity? According to Marienstras (2000: 682), despite the fact that the leading figures in the 20
rebellion could easily change their allegiance from the King to the new nation, the idea of national community was unfamiliar for the majority of the ordinary people. In this paper, I examine how the national identity of the colonists evolved during the 1760s and 1770s. I explore which terms colonists used of themselves, America, Britain, and the government. My material consists of letters sent from the American colonies to Whig politicians in Britain during these two decades. The letters are unedited and held at the Sheffield City Archives. Although the receivers of these letters were well-known politicians, the senders of many of the letters are anonymous. They were probably sent by ordinary people who wanted to appeal to Whig politicians concerning American affairs. I will make use of Florian (2013) and Ziegler (2013), who have both examined American identity in newspapers published in American colonies. Ziegler has also compiled a list of terms that suggest either British or American identity. In addition, I will draw on Joseph (2004), who has examined questions relating to national identity. This paper is related to my doctoral thesis, which I am currently working on at the University of Turku. References Primary sources Wentworth Woodhouse Muniments: Papers of Charles Watson-Wentworth, 2nd Marquis of Rockingham (1730–1782) WWM/R/1-229. Research literature Florian Emma. 2013. “The Problematic Search for an Emerging American Identity before the Revolution: An Analysis of Colonial Newspapers and Secondary Literature”. Honors Projects. Paper 49. Illinois Wesleyan University. http://digitalcommons.iwu.edu/history_honproj/49/. Joseph John E. 2004. Language and Identity: National, ethnic, religious. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. Marienstras Elise. 2000. “Nationality and citizenship”. In A Companion to the American Revolution, edited by Jack P. Greene and J. R. Pole, 680–685. Malden: Blackwell Publishing. Ziegler Alexander. 2006. “From Colonies to Nation: The Emergence of American Nationalism, 1750-1800.” Chrestomathy, volume 5: 347–375. Charleston, SC: The College of Charleston. http://chrestomathy.cofc.edu/documents/vol5/ziegler.pdf. Keywords: American Revolution, correspondence, identity, nationalism
* Gabriel Jay Rauhoff and Päivi Pietilä (University of Turku, Finland) Writing in L2 English: the Case of Phraseological Competence The use and acquisition of English by non-native speakers and writers is one of the main areas of SLA research world-wide. Our presentation gives an outline of ongoing research on academic L2 English, focusing on aspects of lexical competence. As an example of research being conducted in our Department at the moment, a study on phraseological competence in L2 writing is presented and discussed. Phraseology, i.e., the use of collocations, lexical bundles, and other multi-word units, has been found to be an aspect of language competence which clearly distinguishes native speakers from language learners (or L2 users). Even highly proficient L2 users tend to have difficulties with phraseology. A recently developed approach to the study of phraseology (Durrant & Schmitt 2009, Granger & Bestgen 2014) involves an analysis of written texts by using two statistical measures, Mutual Information (MI) and t-score, which indicate the use of word combinations consisting of low frequency (but strongly associated) words and those consisting of high frequency words, respectively.
Using a method similar to Granger & Bestgen’s 2014 study, and with a recently released CollGram Calculator tool, the present study observed the use of bigrams in Finnish university-level students’ writing in non-argumentative and argumentative English tasks. Bigrams, i.e., word pairs consisting of directly adjacent words, were extracted from the student compositions and analyzed for both task types. This talk not only aims to present empirical data of Finnish students’ phraseological competence in different second language writing tasks, but also provides some pedagogical implications. References Durrant, Philip & Norbert Schmitt 2009. To what extent do native and non-native writers make use of collocations? International Journal of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching 47: 157-177. Granger, Sylviane & Yves Bestgen 2014. The use of collocations by intermediate vs. advanced non-native writers: A bigram-based study. IRAL 52 (3): 229-252.
* Turo Rautaoja (University of Turku, Finland) “I have told it because it paints the man” – Sibelius, the Finns, and a translated narrative In my on-going research project, I have explored the narrative impact of 12 Sibelius-related texts that were translated from Swedish, English and German into Finnish between the years 1917 and 1965. As parts of wider social developments, these texts were involved in shaping the cultural life of Finland in the first half of the 20th-century. Focussing on the three English-language books in my material, my presentation will consider the role of Cecil Gray’s Sibelius - The Symphonies (1935/1945), Olin Downes’s Jean Sibelius (1945) and Harold E. Johnson’s Jean Sibelius (1965) in the construction of the Finnish Sibelius narrative. Taking sociological narrative analysis as the theoretical framework, the paper concentrates on two features of narrative construction, relationality and selective appropriation, in its examination of the public narrative built around Sibelius. The former feature refers to the context in which the text was published and the latter to the target culture-related issues that were highlighted by the act of translating a particular text. By looking at these features, I will be able shed light on the manner in which the texts were integrated into the fabric of the Sibelius narrative in Finland and illustrate the multifaceted cultural connections that these texts represented. * Matti Rissanen (University of Helsinki) Notes on the emergence, loss and changing frequency of adverbial connectives in the history of English In this paper I will concentrate on the history of English adverbial connectives, i.e., the subordinators, prepositions and adverbs indicating relationships between items, themes or proposals. These relationships include time, reason, comparison, condition, concession, and so on. The most obvious of these linking words or phrases are of course subordinators, but particularly in the history of English, prepositions and adverbs also play an important role. *
Dave Sayers (Sheffield Hallam University, UK) Facilitating cultural exchange with international students in teaching ELF This paper reviews the results of a new initiative in teaching about ELF and World English(es) at a British university with significant international enrolment. In this teaching model, students each conduct an individual research interview with someone from a country where English is widely spoken but not as a first language. This is arranged in collaboration with the ‘Global Friends’ programme, which is run by the university’s international student support team to facilitate social links between British and international students. Students are guided into the Global Friends programme, initially as a way to find interviewees for their projects, and hopefully with a view to spurring more sustained contacts in the longer term, aiming for a more thorough and holistic form of education about World English(es). The presentation will review feedback on this initiative, and consider its possible application in other teaching settings. * Dave Sayers (Sheffield Hallam University, UK), Jo Angouri (University of Warwick, UK), Karen Corrigan (Newcastle University, UK), and Robert Lawson (Birmingham City University, UK) What good are we doing in linguistics? Foregrounding impacts in language research With our contribution, we intend to kick start a new area of debate in contemporary linguistics and language research. The field of linguistics has a strong tradition of engaging with ‘real world’ contexts, and doing good for people. But this impressive record has long been under-sung amid greater attention to theory, methodology, data, and other trappings of scholarly concern. Those things are important of course, but the good we do in the world is inconsistently celebrated. Our talk begins with a celebratory history of the good work done by linguists over the decades. We try to bring together the applications of linguistic research in raising human wellbeing in different contexts, showing how strong we are as a discipline in this regard. We then proceed to set out a manifesto for building up this area of dialogue in future. We set out our plans for a new journal titled ‘Impacts in Language Research’, along with plans for associated conference and colloquium activities. Our mission is to drive forward a new genre in writing and public speaking in linguistics, maintaining a basis in empirical findings and rigorous methods but focusing on our contribution to society. * Roger D. Sell (Åbo Akademi University) Period qualities and universal qualities: The critic as Janus Terry Eagleton accused John Bayley of an "unflinching suppression of the fact that literary texts are produced from particular historical conditions. ... [H]e remains for the most part serenely unhampered by the demands of historical specificity." In this paper, I argue that both Eagleton and Bayley, though at opposite extremes on one kind of critical spectrum, have grasped something important. On the one hand, we do try to understand texts as written and read within their own original contexts, as having "period" qualities, that is to say, because we sense that otherwise shall not really "know" what it is we are reading. On the other hand, we can have an equally strong sense that some texts may outlive, or already *have* outlived, their original contexts, inviting people of 23
widely different backgrounds to engage with them, as the result of qualities which, though not for the kind of reasons given by nineteenth century aestheticists and idealists, are "universal". Examining one particular literary writer in some detail, I suggest that a very valuable criticism could be written by a Eagleton-Bayley hybrid, and that in point of fact much criticism of that Janusfaced kind is already to be found, and deserves to be better heard. * Elina Siltanen (University of Turku, Finland) Being in the present: Poetry as a ‘mindfulness’ project in Bernadette Mayer’s Studying Hunger Journals In his book Attention Equals Life, Andrew Epstein notes that the past several decades are often characterized by the notion of a “crisis of attention”, a lack of focus, and that poetry has often been understood as “a form of attention” (Epstein 2016: 11-12, 20-22). Epstein discusses how poets like Bernadette Mayer turn their attention to the present and the everyday, with a particular focus on domestic life and motherhood. Mayer, however, also has differently focused stakes on attention elsewhere in her work. Studying Hunger Journals (2011) is a journal project Mayer started working on in the 1970s while she was in counseling. In the book, she turns her attention to observing emotional responses. She notes in the beginning of the book that “if a human, a writer, could come up with a workable code, or shorthand, for the transcription of every event, every motion, every transition of his or her own mind, & could perform this process of translation on himself … someone could come up with a great piece of language” (Mayer 2011: 2). In attempting to catalogue the movements of her mind and her emotional responses, Mayer engages in a kind of attention that might be described as a “mindfulness” approach. I will draw from studies in emotions, affects and cognitive processes of reading in order to discuss how Mayer invites the reader, along with herself, to observe movements of mind and emotions instead of engaging with and evaluating them. References Epstein, Andrew. 2016. Attention Equals Life: The Pursuit of the Everyday in Contemporary Poetry and Culture. New York: Oxford University Press. Mayer, Bernadette. 2011. Studying Hunger Journals. Barrytown: Station Hill Press.
* Janne Skaffari & Pekka Lintunen (University of Turku, Finland) Millennials meet linguistics: Reflecting on the first-year experience University-level English degrees include a linguistics component, which is for practical reasons divided into smaller units in curricula, particularly in the Finnish context with more emphasis on language and linguistics than literature. English studies often include a specific introductory course on (English) linguistics, but linguistic concepts, analyses and thinking are an integral part of other courses as well, for instance, proficiency, grammar and translation courses. This paper focuses on learning about linguistics in the first autumn at university. We asked a group of first-year students of English to reflect on their studies and the linguistics component. Did the students regard the linguistics component as a whole, although it was taught in separate courses? Were they able to identify links between the different courses? How did they feel about discussing similar topics with different teachers, and what was their learning process like? More broadly, what 24
did the new students think that they learnt about languages and linguistics in general as part of their first-year experience, and which topics in particular caught their attention? The qualitative discussion we present in our paper is based on reflective essays written by major and minor students who had by the end of their first term at university taken courses in grammar, English and/or general phonetics, general linguistics and/or an introductory English linguistics course. The findings are relevant for anyone teaching linguistically orientated courses at Finnish departments of English and provide ideas for potential revisions in department curricula and course syllabi. * Damon Tringham (University of Turku, Finland) Some introductory remarks on how the advent of the Internet affects the translation of fantasy novels from Finnish into English From the mid-1980s to today, from one century to another, computing power in its various guises has changed how translation works in many clear and concrete ways: Word Processing (WP), working from home (teleworking), and Computer-Assisted Translation (CAT) with all its many elements, for instance machine translation (MT), translation memories (TMs), concordancers, etc. However, there is another aspect of the computer revolution that has influenced translation greatly – the Internet. Clearly, the Internet has revolutionised so many things that it is almost axiomatic to apply the phrase to any topic, yet a glance at the many different ways in which this one product of the computer revolution has impacted upon the work of the translator is certainly worthwhile – especially when looked at from a narrower angle. The Internet has fostered changes in the number of translations of fantasy novels from English into Finnish through several channels, affecting readers, publishers, and translators. Specifically, translators have access to search engines to solve tricky culturally-bound questions and, further, translators can also expect that their readers are evermore likely to use the Internet themselves to look into issues that come up that they do not understand or want more information on. How these two issues may be affecting current translating is the subject of this paper. Keywords: translation, Internet, culture-bound items
* Mira Tupala (University of Turku, Finland) Operationalizing quantitative appraisal analysis in the study of institutional discourse My doctoral dissertation project (ongoing) deals with immigration-related discourses of the European Union, and the focus is on the values and ideologies it promotes when planning and enacting migration policies. This is the whole scope of my research; however, here, I will deal with the methodological issues I have encountered. My study uses systemic functional linguistics within which the appraisal framework was chosen as the main analytic tool. In this article, I will discuss the main methodological aim of my research which is to operationalize the appraisal framework quantitatively with a corpus of institutional texts as appraisal has not often been used with largescale corpus data or when studying institutional discourse. I will address the problems that I have encountered when conducting quantitative appraisal analysis on official EU texts and how I have overcome them. The appraisal framework studies attitudinal and evaluative language and 25
institutional discourse is not traditionally known as a genre where these features of language play a large role. However, official texts contain instances of attitudes and evaluations more often than one would think but they are often subtle and thus not easily distinguishable. This poses a challenge for the researcher as the instances of evaluative language use need to be identified objectively and accurately with regard to their cultural setting while avoiding over-interpretation. Moreover, corpus annotation programs are of help when managing and storing the results of the analysis but the annotation itself needs to be conducted manually as corpus tools are unable to detect and auto-code cases of appraisal due to its nature of not being tied to any specific grammatical structures. For my part, I want to strengthen the use of the appraisal framework in research conducted in Finland and open new avenues for its usage. Keywords: appraisal, institutional discourse, corpus analysis
* Jukka Tyrkkö (Linnaeus University, Sweden) “We are not without our problems”: Personal pronouns and the structure of political speeches Personal pronouns are arguably the single most important linguistic device when it comes to the language of politics (see Pennycook 1994). They are instrumental to the core function of political language, the creation of in-groups and out-groups (see, e.g., Fox and Park 2006, Fetzer and Bull 2008, Zhang 2012, Moberg and Ericsson 2013), while simultaneously affording speakers many options when it comes to the strategic deployment of intentionally unclear passages, commonly referred to as doublespeak following Orwell’s Nineteen Eighty-Four. Few studies to date have presented evidence of large-scale diachronic patterns in the use of personal pronouns in political language. In Tyrkkö (2016), I discussed the increasing use of inclusive plural references (we, us and our) in British and American political speeches from the early twentieth century onward. Attributing this increase at least in part to the emergent broadcast media, I showed that politicians frequently use inclusive references to fade the distinction between the audience, his or her own party, the country, and sometimes other entities. In this paper, I will present a corpusbased investigation of the relationship between the structure of political speeches and the clustering of personal pronouns within them. I will discuss how the use of specific personal pronouns differs in frequency and purpose in the beginning, middle and end of a speech, how bursts of personal pronouns are used strategically, and what is happening to the use of personal pronouns now in the age of “post-fact politics”. The research will be based on the latest version of the Small Corpus of Political Speeches, comprising 1,250 speeches (c. 5 million words) delivered by a wide variety of politicians representing the full spectrum of national politics between 1800 and 2015. This paper contributes to the ongoing work of the consortium Democratisation, mediatisation and language change 17001950 (AoF 2016–2020). References Fetzer, Anita & Peter Bull. 2008. “‘Well, I answer it by simply inviting you to look at the evidence’. The strategic use of pronouns in political interviews”. Journal of Language and Politics 7(2): 271–289. Fox, Julia R & Byungho Park. 2006. “The ‘I’ of embedded reporting: An analysis of CNN coverage of the ‘Shock and Awe’ campaign”. Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media 50(1): 36–51. Moberg, Ulla & Göran Eriksson. 2013. “Managing ideological differences in joint political press conferences. A study of the strategic use of the personal pronoun ‘we’”. Journal of Language and Politics 12(3): 315–334. Pennycook, Alastair. 1994. “The politics of pronouns”. ELT Journal 48(2): 173–178.
Small Corpus of Political Speeches. 2007–. Compiled by Jukka Tyrkkö at the Universities of Helsinki and Tampere with the assistance of Veera Saarimäki and Jenni Riihimäki. http://www.helsinki.fi/ varieng/CoRD/corpora/SCPS/. Tyrkkö, Jukka. 2016. “Looking for Rhetorical Thresholds: Pronoun Frequencies in Political Speeches”. In Nevala Minna, Gabrielle Mazzon, Carla Suhr and Ursula Lutzky (eds.) The Pragmatics and Stylistics of Identity Construction and Characterisation (Studies in Variation, Contacts and Change in English 17). Helsinki: Varieng. Zhan, Cheng. 2012. “Mediation through personal pronoun shifts in dialogue interpreting of political meetings”. Interpreting 14(2): 192–216.
* Elina Valovirta (University of Turku, Finland) Postcritical erotic intimacy: Engaging with oral sex in Caribbean literature Oral sex is, according to sex reports like Kinsey, Hite and National Health, an ordinary part of the average Westerner’s sexual repertoire. On the other hand, it is a sanctioned taboo in some environments across the globe, and while technically legal in the Caribbean, oral sex appears to be a very precarious subject in its cultural production including fiction and poetry. The axiom of Caribbean sexuality as inherently problematic and defined by negative affect has become the most commonplace way to describe sex and sexuality in the region. Sex as a problem, in other words, is normal, and while oral sex can be, in light of statistics, seen as ordinary in the US and the West, it becomes exotic and the other in the context of Caribbean problem sexuality. In light of the recent anthology, Caribbean Erotic, edited by Adisa and Donna Aza Weir Soley (2010), there is a growing body of work – mostly poetry – highlighting oral sex in terms of positive affect. It is seen as liberating, mutually enjoyable, and – to go with the descriptors adopted above – ordinarily ubiquitous in fictional representations of oral sex in the region. Oral sex and desire for it, in other words, are on their way of becoming – not tragic, oppressive or exotic – but in fact the new normal in the Caribbean context. Besides identifying this new paradigm of mutually enjoyable oral sex in the sexual repertoire of Caribbean fictional characters gay and straight, there is a further objective put forth by this paper regarding the ways of interpreting such novel vistas for erotic intimacy; how to negotiate these acts of oral sex and orality in postcritical terms and what might be at stake in that endeavor? * Katja Vuokko (University of Turku, Finland) Titles, cricket and Guy Fawkes: 19th and early 20th century Finnish translator’s footnotes In my paper, I will examine the use of translator’s footnotes in translations of English prose literature into Finnish in the 19th and early 20th century: what was explained to the readers and how did the translators bridge the gaps between the two cultures? As literary translation into Finnish began in earnest in the latter half of the 19th century, also literature originally written in English started to appear in Finnish translations. However, the AngloAmerican world and the English language were still relatively unfamiliar to Finnish 19th century readers. Therefore, translators often needed to cope with concepts or allusions that were probably strange to the Finnish target audience. In the 19th and early 20th century, when Finnish translators encountered these kinds of translation problems, a common solution was to explain the unfamiliar element in a translator’s footnote. These notes offer a glimpse into what the translators expected their readers to know (e.g. Hamlet) and not know (e.g. that “the philosophic Dane” refers to 27
Hamlet), and what aspects of the English culture, history and society did they wish to impart to the Finnish readers. I will also discuss the transcultural and translingual character of footnotes. Early Finnish translations of English literature were generally based on Swedish translations, so in fact, many of the translator’s footnotes in these works are actually translated Swedish footnotes. Even when the translation was made from the English original, translators often used earlier Swedish (or German) translations of the same work as an aid and reference. Traces of these practices can be found when comparing Finnish and Swedish translator’s footnotes. Furthermore, footnotes were sometimes used even by the original authors, such as Walter Scott. I will show how the Finnish translators dealt with these layers of preceding notes, adapting them to the new audience. *